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Associative Learning and Animal Behavior

Dec 22, 2021

When an animal learns to associate a particular response with a reward or punishment it is known as associative learning. The terms rewards and punishment is as appropriate in the laboratory as they are in the natural environment. Finding a mate or food is equivalent to a reward while being attacked by a predator could be said to be a punishment. In associative learning, an animal remembers its past experiences and modifies its behavior accordingly. There is certainly no conscious effort at thi ...read more

Properties of Matter, Elements and Separation Techniques

Dec 22, 2021

Before we begin, we must first understand what Matter is and what elements are In a very basic definition, Matter is anything that has weight and occupies space. Elements on the other hand, are chemically unique substances that cannot be further broken down into simpler compounds by any known chemical means. Elements consists of atoms which have the same number of protons in their nuclei. Elements are pure substances. STATES OF MATTER: Matter can exist in three states, Solid, Liquid and Gas ...read more

Webb Telescope Officially Cleared for Launch on December 25

Dec 22, 2021

UPDATE: Shortly after publication of this article, Arianespace announced the launch for JWST has been delayed until December 25: “Due to adverse weather conditions at Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana, the flight #VA256 to launch the James Webb Space Telescope –initially scheduled for December 24– is being postponed,” Arianespace said via Twitter. “Tomorrow evening, local time, another weather forecast will be issued in order to confirm the date of December 25. The #Ariane5 laun ...read more

Working Principles and Uses of a Periscope

Dec 22, 2021

Posted By: Tony Onwujiariri December 21, 2021 The working principles of a periscope is function of the way it is built and designed. A periscope uses a series of turns to turn light rays to view the object. The periscope is designed to have a wide field of view, and can be used in submarines and on land. In submarines, periscopes are commonly used to inspect cargo. In the U.S., a pier or a dock is a common place to find a periscope. Unlike a telescope, a periscope is designed to ...read more

Life Could Make Habitable Pockets in Venus’ Atmosphere

Dec 23, 2021

The tantalizing possibility that life exists in the clouds of Venus is once again causing a stir amongst planetary scientists this week. Researchers out of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cardiff University, and the University of Cambridge have proposed that some longstanding ‘anomalies’ in the composition of Venus’ atmosphere might be explained by the presence of ammonia. But ammonia itself would be a strange compound to discover there, unless some unknown process – such as ...read more

Now We Know Why Pluto has These Strange Features on its Surface

Dec 23, 2021

After New Horizons made its close flyby of Pluto in July of 2015, scientists were astounded at the incredible closeup views of Pluto’s surface. One of the most intriguing and mysterious features was a bright plain inside the prominent heart-shaped feature on Pluto, called “Tombaugh Regio” (Tombaugh Region) named after Clyde Tombaugh, who discovered Pluto in 1930. The region is composed of a broken surface of irregularly-shaped segments that appear to be geologically young because no impac ...read more

SpaceX is Hoping to Turn Atmospheric CO2 Into Rocket Fuel

Dec 23, 2021

Earth is in the midst of a climate crisis. Thanks to the way CO2 emissions have been rising rapidly since the early 20th century, global temperatures are rising, triggering a positive feedback cycle that threatens to make it worse. According to recent analyses, even if the industrialized nations agree to slash carbon emissions drastically, global warming will not begin to slow until mid-century. For this reason, emission reduction needs to be paired with carbon capture to ensure we avoid the wo ...read more

Floating “Aerobats” Could be the Best way to Explore the Cloud Tops of Venus

Dec 23, 2021

According to multiple lines of evidence, Venus was once a much different planet than it is today. But roughly 500 million years ago, a massive resurfacing event triggered a runaway greenhouse effect that led to the hot, poisonous, and hellish environment we see there today. Therefore, the study of Venus presents an opportunity to model the evolution of planetary environments, which can serve as a reference for what could happen in the future. In the coming years, NASA plans to send lighter-than ...read more

The Bottom of Valles Marineris Seems to Have Water Mixed in With the Regolith

Dec 23, 2021

For generations, humans have dreamed of the day when we might set foot on Mars. For many others, the dream has been one of settling on Mars and creating an outpost of human civilization there. Today, it looks as though both of these dreams are getting closer to becoming a reality, as space agencies and the commercial space industry are deep into planning regular crewed missions to the Red Planet. And when planning for long-duration missions to destinations in deep space, a vital aspect is asses ...read more

Best Image Ever Taken of Stars Buzzing Around the Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole

Dec 23, 2021

It all began with the discovery of Sagittarius A*, a persistent radio source located at the Galactic Center of the Milky Way that turned out to be a supermassive black hole (SMBH). This discovery was accompanied by the realization that SMBHs exist at the heart of most galaxies, which account for their energetic nature and the hypervelocity jets extending from their center. Since then, scientists have been trying to get a better look at Sag A* and its surroundings to learn more about the role SM ...read more

Why You Shouldn’t Play with Your Belly Button

Dec 23, 2021

We have our own quirks, and one of them is doing weird things to our bodies when we’re alone. It could be cleaning out your ears, staring at your pores, or even playing with your belly button. The last one gives a strange feeling, though…  Did you know that out of weird things we do to our bodies when we’re alone, playing with your belly button isn’t a good thing? Read on to know the reasons:  The Sensation When You Touch Your Belly Button Touching your belly button stimulate ...read more

10 Facts about the Sun

Dec 24, 2021

Atmosphere affects the sun’s color so during morning, evening and afternoon the sun appears reddish or yellow or white. This happens because our earth’s atmosphere scatters light. Red light has the highest wavelength so during the morning only red light reaches our eyes and all the other colors of the visible spectrum get scattered away.  All other colors have smaller wavelengths than red light and also during morning and evening, the sun is at the farthest distance from the earth su ...read more